Dictionary > Ketose

Ketose

Definition
noun, plural: ketoses
A monosaccharide with a ketone as its carbonyl group
Supplement
A carbohydrate is an organic compound consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Carbohydrates are classified into monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. The monosaccharides are the simplest forms of carbohydrates, and are further classified based on the carbonyl group they contain. Accordingly, monosaccharides may be aldose or ketose. While an aldose is a monosaccharide containing an aldehyde group (-CHO), a ketose is one that contains a ketone (C=O). A ketose serves as a reducing sugar. However, those that are bound into the glycosides are non-reducing sugar.
Ketoses may be classified based on the number of carbons in the main chain. For example, a three-carbon ketose is referred to as a triose. An example of this is dihydroxyacetone. Tetroses are four-carbon ketoses. An example is erythrulose. Pentoses are five-carbon ketoses and examples are ribulose and xylulose. Hexoses are six-carbon ketoses. Examples include fructose, sorbose, and psicose. Heptoses are seven-carbon ketoses, such as sedoheptulose. Octoses are eight-carbon ketoses (e.g. D-manno-octulose). Nanoses are nine-carbon ketoses (e.g. D-glycero-D-galacto-nonulose).
One way to chemically identify a ketose from an aldose is through Seliwanoff’s test. Aldoses produce a light pink color whereas ketoses produce a dark red color. To isomerize a ketose into an aldose, Lobry-de Bruyn-van Ekenstein transformation is applied.
See also:


You will also like...

Chromosome Mutations
Chromosome Mutations

Mutations can also influence the phenotype of an organism. This tutorial looks at the effects of chromosomal mutations, ..

Buttress roots
Roots

This study guide tackles plant roots in greater detail. It delves into the development of plant roots, the root structur..

Plant meristem
Plant Meristems and Growth

In plants, growth occurs in meristems, which are the site of repeated cell division of unspecialized cells. These cells ..

Birth Control and Contraception
Birth Control and Contraception

Different pregnancy and birth control and contraception strategies are described. Read this tutorial to learn each of th..

The process of photosynthesis
Photosynthesis – Photolysis and Carbon Fixation

Photosynthesis is the process that plants undertake to create organic materials from carbon dioxide and water, with the ..

Biological Cell Defense
Biological Cell Defense

Organisms employ different strategies to boost its defenses against antigens. Humans have an immune system to combat pat..

Related Articles...

No related articles found

See all Related Topics