Dictionary > Lead-pipe rigidity

Lead-pipe rigidity

A hypokinetic disorder characterized by the inflexibility or stiffness of the limb that is maintained equally throughout the passive flexion
Lead-pipe rigidity is a type of movement disorder, i.e. a hypokinesia that pertains to decreased bodily movements. The loss is due to a disruption in the basal ganglia. An example of a condition exhibiting a hypokinetic disorder is the Parkinson’s disease. Patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease would experience rigidity in their muscles. They would also not be able to produce movement in the affected muscle. The various forms of hypokinetic disorders include akinesia, bradykinesia, dysarthria, dyskinesia, dystonia, freezing, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, postural instability, and rigidity.
Rigidity is characterized by an increase in muscle tone. This causes resistance to externally imposed joint movements.1 It affects both agonist muscles and antagonist muscles. It is associated with patients with Parkinson’s disease. Two forms of rigidity observed are the cogwheel rigidity and the lead-pipe type. The difference between the two is that in cogwheel rigidity there is tremor superimposed with background increase of tone whereas in lead-pipe rigidity there is a relatively uniform rigidity in both agonist and antagonist muscle group.2
See also:

  • Parkinson’s disease
  • hypokinesia


1 O’Sullivan, Susan B.; Schmitz, Thomas J. (2007). “Parkinson’s Disease”. Physical Rehabilitation 5. Philadelphia: F.A Davis Company. pp. 856–857.

2 Teddy Poh. (2013). SPASTICITY VS RIGIDITY. Retrieved from https://teddybrain.wordpress.com/2013/01/01/spasticity-vs-rigidity/

You will also like...

human brain structure
The Conscious & Unconscious Nervous System

This tutorial elaborates on how the nervous system works, particularly at the tissue level of the brain. There are three..

Plant biology
Plant Biology

Plantlife can be studied at a variety of levels, from the molecular, genetic and biochemical level through organelles, c..

An artist's depiction of the origin of amphibians
Amphibians & Early Reptiles

Obtaining air outside an aquatic environment required species to acquire suitable adaptations, and this was the case of ..

Cell Respiration
Cell Respiration

Cell respiration is the process of creating ATP. It is "respiration" because it utilizes oxygen. Know the different stag..

Lake Wakatipu, New Zealand
New Zealand’s Unique Geographical History

Explore why New Zealand has such unique flora and fauna, and learn why long periods of geographical isolation. This less..

kinesin motor proteins transporting molecules across microtubules
Movement of Molecules Across Cell Membranes

Molecules move within the cell or from one cell to another through different strategies. Transport may be in the form of..