Dictionary > Deoxyguanosine monophosphate

Deoxyguanosine monophosphate


plural: deoxyguanosine monophosphates
(biochemistry) A nucleotide composed of guanine, deoxyribose and a phosphate group, with a chemical formula: C10H14N5O7P



A nucleotide is an organic compound made up of three subunits: a nucleobase, a five-carbon sugar, and a phosphate group. The sugar component may either be ribose or deoxyribose. The ribose is the sugar component of the nucleotides that make up RNA. The deoxyribose is the sugar component of DNA. Nucleotides are the monomeric units of nucleic acids. Each phosphate group connects the sugar rings of two adjacent nucleotide monomers. The phosphate groups and the sugar moieties form the backbone of a nucleic acid. The directionality of the chain runs from 5′-end to 3′-end. In DNA, the orientation of the two strands is in opposite directions. This is to allow complementary base pairing between nucleobase constituents. A nucleotide is, thus, a nucleoside with a phosphate group. Depending on the number of phosphate groups attached to the sugar moiety, it may be called nucleoside monophosphate (if with only one phosphate group), nucleoside diphosphate (with two phosphate groups), or nucleoside triphosphate (when with three phosphate groups). Depending on the pentose sugar component, a nucleoside may be a ribonucleoside or a deoxyribonucleoside. A ribonucleoside is a nucleoside with a ribose sugar component. (Depending on the nucleobase component, the ribonucleoside may be adenosine, guanosine, cytidine, uridine, or 5-methyluridine). A deoxyribonucleoside is a nucleoside with a deoxyribose sugar. Depending on the nucleobase component, a deoxyribonucleoside may be deoxyadenosine, deoxyguanosine, deoxycytidine, thymidine, or deoxyuridine. Also, depending on the nucleobase component, the nucleosides may be grouped into either the “double-ringed” purine or the “single-ringed” pyrimidine.
Deoxyguanosine monophosphate is a purine nucleotide composed of guanine, deoxyribose and a phosphate group, with a chemical formula: C10H14N5O7P


Deoxyguanosine monophosphate (dGMP) is a nucleoside phosphate in being comprised of a deoxyribonucleoside and one phosphate group. This means that it has a deoxyribose as its sugar constituent with one phosphate group attached. Its nucleoside contains a purine base, i.e. a guanine attached to the deoxyribose sugar. It has only one phosphate group attached to the nucleoside. Its conjugate acid form is deoxyguanylic acid whereas its conjugate base form is deoxyguanylate.


Guanosine monophosphate (GMP) is a nucleotide composed of guanine, ribose and a phosphate group. It has a chemical formula of C10H14N5O8P. It differs from dGMP (chemical formula: C10H14N5O7P) in terms of the sugar component. dGMP, instead of having a hydroxyl group on the 2′ carbon of the sugar component as it is in GMP, has it reduced to a hydrogen atom (thus, deoxy- in its name). dGMP is one of the monomeric units that constitute DNA whereas GMP is one of the monomeric units that make up RNA.

Common biological reactions

Common biological reactions

dGMP forms when GMP is reduced. GMP can come from the degradation of GTP (guanosine triphosphate) and GDP (guanosine diphosphate) via hydrolysis, and then reducing the hydroxyl group of the ribose to hydrogen ion. GMP may also be derived from dietary sources (particularly, RNA-rich food). Or, it may be synthesized de novo, starting with D-ribose 5′-phosphate from the pentose phosphate pathway. By the de novo synthesis pathway, inosine monophosphate (IMP) from amino acids, phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP), and folate is oxidized to xanthosine monophosphate (XMP) using NAD.

Biological functions

dGMP may serve as one of the monomer nucleotides in DNA when it is phosphorylated with two more phosphate groups, thus becoming dGTP (deoxyguanosine triphosphate). In DNA, dGTP complementary base pairs with deoxycytidine triphosphate (dCTP).



  • dGMP
  • deoxy-GMP

Chemical formula

  • C10H14N5O7P
  • Synonyms

    • deoxyguanylic acid
    • deoxyguanylate

    Further reading

    See also

    © Biology Online. Content provided and moderated by Biology Online Editors

    You will also like...

    temperature - abiotic factor
    Abiotic and Biotic Factors

    This tutorial deals with the abiotic factors of the freshwater environment that determine what sort of life would be sui..

    green leaf - close up view

    Leaves are the major photosynthetic organ of a plant. Apart from that, they are also crucial to water movement. In this ..

    Structural depiction of catalase, an enzyme
    Protein Activity and Cellular Metabolism

    Proteins have a crucial role in various biological activities. Get to know how proteins are able to perform as enzymes, ..

    "Cronopio dentiacutus", a prehistoric mammal (an illustration)
    Mammalian Ancestors

    Mammals are a diverse group of organisms, where most of them develop their offspring within the uterus of the mother. Ov..

    Crossing Over and Genetic Diversity
    Inheritance and Probability

    Gregor Mendel, an Austrian monk, is most famous in this field for his study of the phenotype of pea plants, including ..

    genes controlling growth and development
    Control of Growth & Development

    Control of Growth & Development tutorials look at how the genetic makeup determines the biological processes on a da..