Dictionary > Dextrin

Dextrin

Definition
noun, plural: dextrins
A carbohydrate that has a chemical formula of C18H32O16, used chiefly as a thickening agent in food or as adhesive
Supplement
Carbohydrates are one of the major classes of biomolecules. The simplest form of carbohydrates is a monosaccharide. The monosaccharides may combine by glycosidic bonds and form larger carbohydrates, such as oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Dextrin is an example of a carbohydrate.
Dextrins are carbohydrates produced from hydrolyzing starch or glycogen. It is comprised of D-glucose units that are linked by α-(1→4) or α-(1→6) glycosidic bonds.
Dextrins are naturally-occurring. In humans, dextrin is produced during the digestion of starch. In particular, the human saliva contains the enzyme α-amylase that hydrolyzes the α-1,4 glycosidic bonds that link carbohydrate constituents of the starch. This results in the production of dextrin (as well as maltotriose and maltose).
Dextrins are produced synthetically as well for their industrial uses. Starch (or British) gum is a translucent, gummy, amorphous substance that is used as a substitute for gum. It is produced synthetically through heat, acids, or diastase. It is of somewhat variable composition, containing several carbohydrates which change easily to their respective varieties of sugar. It is so named from its rotating the plane of polarization to the right.
Linear dextrins are carbohydrates with six or more glucose molecules that are linked with α(1→4) glycosidic linkage. Limit dextrins are those comprised of glucose molecules linked with α(1→6) glycosidic linkage.
IUPAC name:

  • (3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-(2R,3S,4R,5R)-4,5-dihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-(2R,3S,4R,5R,6S)-4,5,6-trihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-3-yloxyoxan-3-yloxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-3,4,5-triol

Chemical formula:

  • C18H32O16
  • Synonym(s):

    • British gum

    See also:

  • oligosaccharide
  • carbohydrate
  • glucose
  • Related terms:

    • achroodextrin
    • Dextrin 6-alpha-d-glucosidase
    • Dextrin 6-glucosyltransferase
    • Dextrin glycosyltransferase
    • Dextrin transglycosylase
    • erythrodextrin
    • Iron dextrin
    • Limit dextrin


    You will also like...

    DNA carries genes coding for proteins
    Genetic Information and Protein Synthesis

    Genes are expressed through the process of protein synthesis. This elaborate tutorial provides an in-depth review of the..

    Growth and Plant Hormones
    Growth and Plant Hormones

    Plants, like animals, produce hormones to regulate plant activities, including growth. They need these hormones to respo..

    Biological Cell schematic diagram
    Biological Cell Introduction

    It only takes one biological cell to create an organism. A single cell is able to keep itself functional through its 'mi..

    Psychiatry and mental disorders
    Psychiatry & Mental Disorders

    Different mental disorders are described here. Read this tutorial to get an overview of schizophrenia, affective mood di..

    Consciousness and behavior
    Consciousness and Behavior

    Human consciousness and behavior are an interesting topic since they are determined and controlled by the brain. Conscio..

    Buttress roots
    Roots

    This study guide tackles plant roots in greater detail. It delves into the development of plant roots, the root structur..

    Related Articles...

    No related articles found

    See all Related Topics