Dictionary > Glycoconjugate

Glycoconjugate

Definition
noun, plural: glycoconjugates
A carbohydrate chemically linked to another compound, e.g. lipid or protein
Supplement
Glycoconjugates are essential in living things. They are carbohydrates that are covalently linked to another biomolecule via glycosylation and the carbohydrate constituent of the complex is called a glycan. Glycosylation is a process that forms glycoconjugates. In general, this biochemical process occurs in the cytoplasm of a cell. In eukaryotes, it occurs in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (particularly, N-linked glycosylation) and in the cisterna of the Golgi apparatus (particularly, O-linked glycosylation). Glycosylation, particularly O-GlcNAc modification, occurs in the nucleus.
Glycoconjugates are involved in cell to cell communications, such as cell-cell recognition. They are also involved in cell to matrix interactions and in the process of detoxification. They are also essential in long term immune protection. Thus, glycoconjugate vaccines (e.g. immunization against influenza) are contrived to boost longer immune protection against carbohydrate antigens.
Examples of glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycosides, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. For instance, a glycolipid is a carbohydrate (e.g. certain oligosaccharides and polysaccharides) attached to a lipid is called a glycolipid. A glycoprotein is a carbohydrate attached to a protein.
See also:


You will also like...

3D rendering of an antibody
Passive and Active Types of Immunity

Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell capable of producing a specific immune response to unique antigens. In thi..

dinosaurs
The Dinosaurs

Dinosaurs represented a major turn in the evolutionary development of organisms on Earth. The first dinosaurs were presu..

New Zealand Fauna
New Zealand’s Unique Fauna

Meet some of New Zealand's unique fauna, including endemic insects, frogs, reptiles, birds, and mammals, and investigate..

Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes
Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes

Learn about the general structure of a eukaryotic gene, the transcription factors, and post-transcriptional regulation....

Cell Respiration
Cell Respiration

Cell respiration is the process of creating ATP. It is "respiration" because it utilizes oxygen. Know the different stag..

DNA molecule
Genetic Control – On and Off Genes

Genes are the blueprint of our bodies, a blueprint that creates a variety of proteins essential to any organism's surviv..