Dictionary > Glycoconjugate


noun, plural: glycoconjugates
A carbohydrate chemically linked to another compound, e.g. lipid or protein
Glycoconjugates are essential in living things. They are carbohydrates that are covalently linked to another biomolecule via glycosylation and the carbohydrate constituent of the complex is called a glycan. Glycosylation is a process that forms glycoconjugates. In general, this biochemical process occurs in the cytoplasm of a cell. In eukaryotes, it occurs in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (particularly, N-linked glycosylation) and in the cisterna of the Golgi apparatus (particularly, O-linked glycosylation). Glycosylation, particularly O-GlcNAc modification, occurs in the nucleus.
Glycoconjugates are involved in cell to cell communications, such as cell-cell recognition. They are also involved in cell to matrix interactions and in the process of detoxification. They are also essential in long term immune protection. Thus, glycoconjugate vaccines (e.g. immunization against influenza) are contrived to boost longer immune protection against carbohydrate antigens.
Examples of glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycosides, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. For instance, a glycolipid is a carbohydrate (e.g. certain oligosaccharides and polysaccharides) attached to a lipid is called a glycolipid. A glycoprotein is a carbohydrate attached to a protein.
See also:

You will also like...

Direct and indirect physiologic effects of growth hormone
Animal Growth Hormones

Hormones are produced in the endocrine glands of animals. The pituitary gland and hypothalamus are the most impor..

Pollution in Freshwater Ecosystems
Pollution in Freshwater Ecosystems

There are many environmental factors that arise due to the usage of water in one way or another and for every action tha..

Genetic Mutations
Chromosome Mutations – II

This tutorial is a continuation of the first lesson on chromosomal mutation. Here, find out the chromosomal aberrations ..

Carbohydrates, fats and proteins - dietary sources
A Balanced Diet – Carbohydrates and Fat

Apart from vitamins, the human body also requires high energy sources such as carbohydrates and fats. If you want an ove..

The process of photosynthesis
Photosynthesis – Photolysis and Carbon Fixation

Photosynthesis is the process that plants undertake to create organic materials from carbon dioxide and water, with the ..

DNA - schematic
Genetic Mutations

This tutorial looks at the mutation at the gene level and the harm it may bring. Learn about single nucleotide polymorph..