Dictionary > Glycoconjugate

Glycoconjugate

Definition
noun, plural: glycoconjugates
A carbohydrate chemically linked to another compound, e.g. lipid or protein
Supplement
Glycoconjugates are essential in living things. They are carbohydrates that are covalently linked to another biomolecule via glycosylation and the carbohydrate constituent of the complex is called a glycan. Glycosylation is a process that forms glycoconjugates. In general, this biochemical process occurs in the cytoplasm of a cell. In eukaryotes, it occurs in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (particularly, N-linked glycosylation) and in the cisterna of the Golgi apparatus (particularly, O-linked glycosylation). Glycosylation, particularly O-GlcNAc modification, occurs in the nucleus.
Glycoconjugates are involved in cell to cell communications, such as cell-cell recognition. They are also involved in cell to matrix interactions and in the process of detoxification. They are also essential in long term immune protection. Thus, glycoconjugate vaccines (e.g. immunization against influenza) are contrived to boost longer immune protection against carbohydrate antigens.
Examples of glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycosides, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. For instance, a glycolipid is a carbohydrate (e.g. certain oligosaccharides and polysaccharides) attached to a lipid is called a glycolipid. A glycoprotein is a carbohydrate attached to a protein.
See also:


You will also like...

Hominid
The Hominids

The hominid family diversified from the apes around 6 to 8 million years ago. Since then, the evolutionary path has prov..

Balanced Diet
A Balanced Diet – Minerals and Proteins

Proteins and minerals can be derived from various dietary sources. They are essential for the proper growth and developm..

Biological Energy
ATP & ADP – Biological Energy

ATP is the energy source that is typically used by an organism in its daily activities. The name is based on its structu..

takahē
Takahē (Porphyrio hochstetteri)

Meet the colorful takahē, an extremely rare flightless bird. Find out more about its unique features and why they matte..

kinesin motor proteins transporting molecules across microtubules
Movement of Molecules Across Cell Membranes

Molecules move within the cell or from one cell to another through different strategies. Transport may be in the form of..

sponge
Primitive Animals

Life, as we know it today, is presumed to have started in the sea and many of them were likely eukaryotic animal-like or..