Dictionary > Glycogenesis

Glycogenesis

Definition
noun
The metabolic process of producing glycogen from glucose for storage mainly in liver and muscle cells in response to high glucose level in the bloodstream
Supplement
In humans and many other animals, glycogenesis is the process in which glycogen is produced to be stored mainly in liver and muscle cells. Short polymers of glucose are converted into long polymers. The body does not directly utilize exogenous glucose, i.e. from a carbohydrate-containing meal. Instead, the body stores glucose into glycogen within cells through the process of glycogenesis. And when the body requires metabolic energy, glycogen is broken down into glucose subunits through the process of glycogenolysis. Thus, glycogenesis is the opposite process of glycogenolysis.
Glycogenesis begins in glucose that is phosphorylated to become glucose-6-phosphate through the enzymes hexokinase in muscle and glucokinase in liver. The next steps of the process are as follows:

  • Glucose-6-phosphate (by phosphoglucomutase) –> Glucose-1- phosphate
  • Glucose-1-phosphate + UTP (by UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase) –> UDP-glucose + PPi
  • PPi + H2O –> 2Pi
  • UDP-glucose + Glycogenn (by glycogen synthase) –> Glycogenn+1 + UDP
  • UDP + ATP –> UTP + ADP

When the chain lengthens to a minimum of 11 residues, the branching enzyme amylo-1,4 to 1,6-transglucosidase transfers a part of the chain to a neighboring chain, thus, establishes a branching point in the molecule.1
Compare:

See also:

  • glycogen
  • glucose
  • insulin
  • Reference(s):

    1 Naik, P. (2015). Biochemistry. JP Medical Ltd. p.182-183.


    You will also like...

    genes controlling growth and development
    Control of Growth & Development

    Control of Growth & Development tutorials look at how the genetic makeup determines the biological processes on a da..

    Sigmund Freud and Carl Gustav Jung
    Sigmund Freud and Carl Gustav Jung

    In this tutorial, the works of Carl Gustav Jung and Sigmund Freud are described. Both of them actively pursued the way h..

    Body temperature regulation by the hypothalamus
    Temperature Regulation in Animals

    This tutorial elucidates body temperature regulation. Know the details here to learn how the body sets the body temperat..

    Pikas are an indicator species for climate change
    Indicator Species and Endangered Species

    Certain species are capable of expressing characteristics indicative of the state of the ecosystem they occupy. They are..

    DNA - schematic
    Genetic Mutations

    This tutorial looks at the mutation at the gene level and the harm it may bring. Learn about single nucleotide polymorph..

    DNA carries genes coding for proteins
    Genetic Information and Protein Synthesis

    Genes are expressed through the process of protein synthesis. This elaborate tutorial provides an in-depth review of the..