Dictionary > Glycogenesis

Glycogenesis

Definition
noun
The metabolic process of producing glycogen from glucose for storage mainly in liver and muscle cells in response to high glucose level in the bloodstream
Supplement
In humans and many other animals, glycogenesis is the process in which glycogen is produced to be stored mainly in liver and muscle cells. Short polymers of glucose are converted into long polymers. The body does not directly utilize exogenous glucose, i.e. from a carbohydrate-containing meal. Instead, the body stores glucose into glycogen within cells through the process of glycogenesis. And when the body requires metabolic energy, glycogen is broken down into glucose subunits through the process of glycogenolysis. Thus, glycogenesis is the opposite process of glycogenolysis.
Glycogenesis begins in glucose that is phosphorylated to become glucose-6-phosphate through the enzymes hexokinase in muscle and glucokinase in liver. The next steps of the process are as follows:

  • Glucose-6-phosphate (by phosphoglucomutase) –> Glucose-1- phosphate
  • Glucose-1-phosphate + UTP (by UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase) –> UDP-glucose + PPi
  • PPi + H2O –> 2Pi
  • UDP-glucose + Glycogenn (by glycogen synthase) –> Glycogenn+1 + UDP
  • UDP + ATP –> UTP + ADP

When the chain lengthens to a minimum of 11 residues, the branching enzyme amylo-1,4 to 1,6-transglucosidase transfers a part of the chain to a neighboring chain, thus, establishes a branching point in the molecule.1
Compare:

See also:

  • glycogen
  • glucose
  • insulin
  • Reference(s):

    1 Naik, P. (2015). Biochemistry. JP Medical Ltd. p.182-183.


    You will also like...

    Freshwater Ecology
    Freshwater Ecology

    Freshwater ecology focuses on the relations of aquatic organisms to their freshwater habitats. There are two forms of co..

    human respiratory system
    Respiration

    The human respiratory system is an efficient system of inspiring and expiring respiratory gases. This tutorial provides ..

    Regulation of Biological Systems
    Regulation of Biological Systems

    Regulation of Biological Systems tutorials are focused on the modulation of biological systems from cell to population l..

    mRNA
    Protein Synthesis

    Part of the genetic information is devoted to the synthesis of proteins. mRNA, a type of RNA, is produced as a transcri..

    New Zealand Flora & Fauna
    Ecology & Biodiversity: New Zealand Flora & Fauna

    New Zealand is known for its unique biodiversity, caused by its remarkable geography and geologic history. Breaking away..

    Hormone Production
    Hormone Production

    Hormones are chemical messengers produced by specialized glands and they were produced by switching on the genes designe..