Direct and indirect physiologic effects of growth hormone
The pituitary gland is responsible for the production of a hormone called somatotrophin. Somatotrophin is essential in the fact that it promotes mass production of proteins on a body-wide scale, by accelerating the rate of transport of amino acids; the constituents of a protein.
The same part of the pituitary gland is responsible for thyroid-stimulating hormone, or TSH for short. This targets the thyroid gland, also a member of the endocrine system, which in turn promotes the production of thyroxine
Thyroxine is responsible for controlling the body’s metabolic rate, and therefore responsible for the amount of energy consumed and the volume of proteins produced.
The overproduction of somatotropin can cause gigantism while underproduction can result in dwarfism. If the substance is overproduced during adulthood, the person grows overly big jaws, hands, and feet, a condition known as acromegaly.
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