Dictionary > Oncogene

Oncogene

Oncogene
(Science: molecular biology, oncology) Mutated and/or overexpressed version of a normal gene of animal cells (the proto-oncogene) that in a dominant fashion can release the cell from normal restraints on growth and thus alone or in concert with other changes, convert a cell into a tumour cell.
A gene that causes normal cells to change into cancerous tumor cells.A viral Gene causing cancer induction.
An oncogene is a modified gene, or a set of nucleotides that codes for a protein, that increases the malignancy of a tumor cell. Some oncogenes, usually involved in early stages of cancer development, increase the chance that a normal cell develops into a tumor cell, possibly resulting in cancer. New research indicates that small rnas 21-25 nucleotides in length called miRNAs can control expression of these genes by downregulating them.
The first oncogene was discovered in 1970 and was termed src (pronounced SARK). Src was in fact first discovered as an oncogene in a chicken retrovirus. Experiments performed by dr g. Steve martin of the university of California, Berkeley demonstrated that the src was indeed the oncogene of the virus. In 1976 Drs. J. Michael bishop and Harold E. Varmus of the university of California, San Francisco demonstrated that oncogenes were defective proto-oncogenes, found in many organisms including humans. For this discovery bishop and Varmus were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1989.


You will also like...

DNA molecule
Genetic Control – On and Off Genes

Genes are the blueprint of our bodies, a blueprint that creates a variety of proteins essential to any organism's surviv..

Hominid
The Hominids

The hominid family diversified from the apes around 6 to 8 million years ago. Since then, the evolutionary path has prov..

Chromosome Mutations
Chromosome Mutations

Mutations can also influence the phenotype of an organism. This tutorial looks at the effects of chromosomal mutations, ..

"Opabinia regalis"
The Evolutionary Development of Multicellular Organisms

Multicellular organisms evolved. The first ones were likely in the form of sponges. Multicellularity led to the evolutio..

primitive arthropods
Arthropods

The arthropods were assumed to be the first taxon of species to possess jointed limbs and exoskeleton, exhibit more adva..

Regulation of Biological Systems
Regulation of Biological Systems

Regulation of Biological Systems tutorials are focused on the modulation of biological systems from cell to population l..