Dictionary > Tetrose


noun, plural: tetroses
A four-carbon monosaccharide
Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. They are classified according to the number of carbon atoms in a monosaccharide. In particular, a tetrose is a monosaccharide with four carbon atoms. Monosaccharides may also be classified based on the type of carbonyl group they contain. An aldose is a monosaccharide that contains an aldehyde group (-CHO) whereas a ketose is one that contains a ketone (C=O). Thus, an aldotetrose is a tetrose with an aldehyde group and therefore the carbonyl group is located in position 1. A ketotetrose, in contrast, is a tetrose with a ketone functional group located in position 2.
Naturally-occurring tetroses are D-erythrose, D-threose, and D-erythrulose. The erythrose, C4H8O4, is a tetrose with one aldehyde group. It was first isolated by French pharmacist Louis Feux Joseph Garot in 1849. The erythrose 4-phosphate is a metabolite in the Calvin cycle and in the pentose phosphate pathway. Threose is a tetrose and an enantiomer of erythrose. Another enantiomer is erythrulose. It has the same chemical formula: C4H8O4. Nevertheless, the erythrulose is a ketotetrose for having a ketone group in its structure.
Word origin: tetr(a)– (“four”) + –ose (relating to sugars)
See also:

You will also like...

Biological Cell Defense
Biological Cell Defense

Organisms employ different strategies to boost its defenses against antigens. Humans have an immune system to combat pat..

green plant cells
Plant Cells vs. Animal Cells

Plant cells have plastids essential in photosynthesis. They also have an additional layer called cell wall on their cell..

DNA - schematic
Genetic Mutations

This tutorial looks at the mutation at the gene level and the harm it may bring. Learn about single nucleotide polymorph..

Developmental Biology
Developmental Biology

Developmental biology is a biological science that is primarily concerned with how a living thing grows and attains matu..

Schematic diagram of DNA replication
DNA Structure & DNA Replication

DNA is a double helix structure comprised of nucleotides. A nucleotide, in turn, is made up of phosphate molecule, deoxy..

Origins of Life on Earth
Origins of Life on Earth

Earth was created around 4.5 billion years ago and life began not long after. Primitive life likely possessed the elemen..

Related Articles...

No related articles found

See all Related Topics