Dictionary > Thrombopoietin

Thrombopoietin

Definition
noun, plural: thrombopoietins
A glycoprotein hormone produced by liver and kidney associated with the production of platelets
Supplement
Thrombopoietin is a glycoprotein hormone produced and secreted by liver (particularly, parenchymal cells and sinusoidal epithelial cells) and kidney (particularly, the cells of proximal convoluted tubule). The THPO gene codes for it. In humans, the gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 3.
Thrombopoietin stimulates megakaryopoiesis, which is the process whereby a promegakaryocyte differentiates into a mature megakaryocyte. In the megakaryopoiesis, a multipotent stem cell, called a hemocytoblast, gives rise to a common myeloid progenitor cell. The progenitor cell, in turn gives rise to colony forming unit (particularly, CFU-Me) fated to become megakaryocytes. The CFU-Me develops into megakaryoblasts, which in turn develop into promegakaryocytes. These promegakaryocytes mature into megakaryocytes. A megakaryocyte is a large cell in the bone marrow with a characteristic lobulate nucleus. The megakaryocyte is ten times the size of an erythrocyte. Its large size is due to the DNA that replicates but the cell does not undergo cytokinesis. As such, a megakaryocyte would appear to contain many nuclei but it is a single nucleus that has become large and lobulated. A demarcation membrane system forms in the cell to demarcate platelets. These will break off from the cell and move to the peripheral blood. Thrombopoietin regulates the differentiation of megakaryocytes and platelets.
Word origin: Greek thrómbo(s) (“clot”) + poiēt(ḗs) (“maker”)
Abbreviation/Acronym:

  • THPO

Synonym(s):

  • megakaryocyte growth and development factor
  • See also:


    You will also like...

    Lights' Effect on Growth
    Lights’ Effect on Growth

    This tutorial elaborates on the effect of light on plant growth. It describes how different plants require different amo..

    Water Cycle
    The Water Cycle

    The water cycle (also referred to as the hydrological cycle) is a system of continuous transfer of water from the air, s..

    New Zealand - Biodiversity fauna
    New Zealand’s Biodiversity

    Find out more about New Zealand's unique biodiversity by exploring a range of different ecosystems and the key role of s..

    Regulation of Biological Systems
    Regulation of Biological Systems

    Regulation of Biological Systems tutorials are focused on the modulation of biological systems from cell to population l..

    Types and Causes of Brain Damage
    Types and Causes of Brain Damage

    This tutorial describes the different types and causes of brain damage. Find out how genetics, physical injury, lack of ..

    Ecological Research Measuring & Analysis
    Ecological Research: Measuring & Analysis

    This lesson is about the methods used for ecological research, such as quadrat and transect sampling, canopy fogging, an..

    Related Articles...

    No related articles found

    See all Related Topics