(ecology) The categorization of biomes into zones based on their distribution or arrangement in a habitat as determined by environmental factors, e.g. altitude, latitude, temperature, other biotic factors, etc.
(general) The formation of zones, each with distinctive features, e.g. common physical characteristics or components
An example of ecological zonation is the vertical zonation of the pelagic ocean:
- epipelagic zone – the zone where photosynthetic organisms (such as planktons) thrive as they require enough light for photosynthesis
- mesopelagic zone – the zone under epipelagic zone where nektons are abundant
- bathypelagic zone – the zone near to the deep sea floor where benthos abound