Dictionary > Amino acid

Amino acid

Definition
noun, plural: amino acids
(1) A molecule consisting of the basic amino group (NH2), the acidic carboxylic group (COOH), a hydrogen atom (-H), and an organic side group (R) attached to the carbon atom, thus, having the basic formula of NH2CHRCOOH.
(2) The building block of protein in which each is coded for by a codon and linked together through peptide bonds.
Supplement
There are over 100 amino acids that have been found to occur naturally; each of them differs in R group. Twenty of them are involved in making up a protein, and are classified as whether they are non-essential or essential. Non-essential or dispensable amino acids are synthesized in the body. They are alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, asparagine, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine, and tyrosine. Essential or indispensable amino acids cannot be synthesized in the body and can only be obtained through food. They are histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.
Related phrases: essential amino acid, nonessential amino acid, basic amino acid, polar amino acid, amino acid transmitter, amino acid permease, nonpolar amino acid, dibasic amino acid, alpha-amino acid.
See also: imino acid.


You will also like...

Peppered moth ("Biston betularia") melanic and light form
Examples of Natural Selection

Darwin's Finches are an example of natural selection in action. They are an excellent example of the way species' gene p..

Cell structure
Cell Structure

A typical eukaryotic cell is comprised of cytoplasm with different organelles, such as nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, G..

Direct and indirect physiologic effects of growth hormone
Animal Growth Hormones

Hormones are produced in the endocrine glands of animals. The pituitary gland and hypothalamus are the most impor..

IQ, Creativity and Learning
IQ, Creativity and Learning

Human intelligence provided the means to utilize abstract ideas and implement reasoning. This tutorial takes a further l..

Schematic diagram of bacterial lactose operon
Gene Action – Operon Hypothesis

Learn how the way genes control and determine every aspect of the body. This lesson uses lac operon as an example. ..

..

human brain structure
The Conscious & Unconscious Nervous System

This tutorial elaborates on how the nervous system works, particularly at the tissue level of the brain. There are three..