noun, plural: luteinizing hormones
A gonadotropin released by the gonadotropes of the anterior pituitary, and, together with the follicle-stimulating hormone, acts to cause ovulation of mature follicles and the secretion of estrogen from thecal and granulosa cells of the ovary
Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a gonadotropin produced and released by the gonadotropic cells. The gonadotropic cells are one of the many endocrine cell types in the anterior pituitary. Apart from LH, these cells release follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) as well.
Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a small glycoprotein hormone made up of alpha subunit (comprised of 92 amino acids in humans whereas 96 amino acids in other vertebrates) and beta subunit (comprised of 120 amino acids). The gene coding for the alpha subunit is on chromosome 6q12.21. The gene for beta subunit is on chromosome 19q13.32.
An acute rise in LH triggers ovulation, i.e. the release of ovum from the follicle. Apart from ovulation, it can also trigger the conversion of the residual follicle into a corpus luteum. The corpus luteum is essential since it produces progesterone, which is important in preparing the endometrium for a possible implantation.
In males, LH is referred to as interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH). It stimulates the interstitial cells of the testis to produce testosterone.
Abbreviation / Acronym:
- interstitial cell-stimulating hormone