noun, plural: thyrotrophs
The cell in the anterior pituitary that particularly releases thyroid-stimulating hormone
The pituitary gland is the master endocrine gland of the endocrine system. It is responsible for the production and the release of different hormones that regulate various physiological processes. The pituitary gland is comprised of the anterior and the posterior pituitaries bordered by pars intermedia. The anterior pituitary is the glandular portion and release hormones that regulate growth, reproduction, lactation, and stress. There are about five types of hormone-secreting cells in the anterior pituitary classified based on the hormones that they produce and secrete: (1) somatotrophs, (2) corticotrophs, (3) thyrotrophs, (4) gonadotrophs, and (5) lactotrophs.
Thyrotrophs are the cells in the anterior pituitary that release thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). They constitute about 3 to 5 % of the anterior pituitary cells. Thyrotrophs release TSH in response to thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) produced by the hypothalamus. TSH is a glycoprotein hormone that works by stimulating the thyroid to produce and release thyroid hormones, particularly thyroxine. One of the functions of thyroxine is to serve as a precursor of triiodothyronine, the active form of thyroid hormone.
- thyrotropic cell