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Genetic Information and Protein Synthesis

Genetic Code Genes are sequences of DNA nucleotides that carry and transmit the information specifying amino acid sequences... Read More

Afferent Nerve

Afferent Nerve Definition The word ‘aferent’ means "steering or conducting something towards a destination". The... Read More

Genetic information

Genetic information The heritable biological information coded in the nucleotide sequences of dna or rna (certain viruses),... Read More

Sensory Systems

A sensory system is a part of the nervous system consisting of sensory receptors that receive stimuli from the internal and... Read More

Neural Control Mechanisms

Nerve cells called neurons generate electric signals that pass from one end of the cell to another and release chemical... Read More

Genome

Genome Definition What is a genome? As defined in biology, a genome is a complete set of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) within... Read More

Protein Synthesis

If you have jumped straight to this page, you may wish to look at the previous tutorial about DNA, which gives background... Read More

Genetic material

Genetic Material Definition What is genetic material? Genetic material is the hereditary substance in the cell. It carries... Read More

Homeostasis

Homeostasis is the tendency not to stray from the range of favorable or ideal internal conditions. Such conditions must be... Read More

Deoxyribonucleic acid

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Definition A nucleic acid refers to any of the group of complex compounds made up of linear... Read More

Codon

What does codon mean? A codon, in biology, is the basic genetic unit of life that acts as the template for the amino acid... Read More

IQ, Creativity and Learning

Evolution of Human Intelligence Humans, as evolved as we are, are the species most capable of exhibiting intelligence and... Read More

Genetic Control – On and Off Genes

Reviewed by: Mary Anne Clark, Ph.D. This lesson looks at the various factors involved that affect growth and... Read More

Meiosis – The Genetics of Reproduction

The genetic information found in DNA is essential in creating all the characteristics of an organism. This remains the case... Read More

Actions of Caffeine in the Brain with Special Reference to Factors That Contribute to Its Widespread Use

IV. Actions of Caffeine on Brain Functions and Behavior Having discussed the molecular and neuronal actions of caffeine,... Read More

Ganglion

Ganglia Definition What are ganglia? To simply define ganglia in biology, it is the structure of an oval shape that... Read More

Consciousness and Behavior

States of Consciousness Defined either by (1) behavior - ranging from attentive and alert to coma and (2) electrical... Read More

Independent Assortment and Crossing Over

Reviewed by: Mary Anne Clark, Ph.D. The previous tutorial investigates the process of meiosis, where... Read More

Nucleic acid

Definition noun plural: nucleic acid nu·cle·ic ac·id, nuˈkleɪ.ɪk ˈæsɪd Any of the group of complex compounds... Read More

Ganglia

Ganglia Definition What are ganglia? To simply define ganglia in biology, it is the structure of an oval shape that... Read More

DNA Structure & DNA Replication

Previous pages in this tutorial have described the basics of a cell, the energy required by these cells and how energy is... Read More

Translation

Translation, in general, is the conversion of something into another form, such as a word from one language to another. But... Read More

The Human Nervous System

The nervous system is essentially a biological information highway, and is responsible for controlling all the biological... Read More

Human Reproduction and Fertilization

For the human species to continue surviving, it is essential that mature adults are capable of producing fertile offspring... Read More

Phosphodiester bond

Phosphodiester Bond Definition Phosphodiester bonds are the backbone of the strands of nucleic acid present in the life... Read More

Chromatin

Chromatin Definition What is chromatin in a cell? Chromatin is a complex of nucleic acids (e.g. DNA or RNA) and proteins... Read More

Bacteria

Bacteria Definition What are bacteria? What is the definition of bacteria in biology? Bacteria are defined as organisms... Read More

Ribonucleic acid

Ribonucleic Acid Definition noun (uncountable), ribonucleic acids ri·bo·nu·cle·ic ac·id, raɪboʊnjuːkliːɪk... Read More

A Protein Being Born – a live cell imaging of RNA translation

You probably already heard the concepts of translation in the central dogma of molecular biology. The dogma is an... Read More

Frameshift mutation

Define Frameshift Mutation What is a frameshift mutation? In biology, insertions or deletions of nucleotides in the coding... Read More

Control of Body Movement

Motor Control Hierarchy A motor program is the pattern of neural activities required to perform a movement is created and... Read More

Null hypothesis

Null Hypothesis Definition Null hypothesis is defined as “the commonly accepted fact (such as the sky is blue) and... Read More

Stimulus

We can detect hot or cold environments using our sense of temperature. When the temperature is too hot, sweating... Read More

Chemical Composition of the Body

In order to fully understand the mechanisms of human physiology, it is important to have an understanding of the chemical... Read More

Chromosome Mutations

Reviewed by: Mary Anne Clark, Ph.D. By nature, the genetic information from both parents is expected to be seen... Read More

Theory of Neuroscience

Nezih OKTAR Journal of Neurological Sciences (Turkish) 2006, Volume 23, Number 3, Page(s) 155-158. An Open Access... Read More

Mutagen

Mutagen Definition What is a mutagen? A mutagen is a substance or agent that causes DNA impairment that results in the... Read More

Chromosomal mutation

Every living thing is made up of DNA. Our DNA is what makes us unique and different in the world. Our DNA is made up of... Read More

Naked virus

Viruses are infectious entities with size ranges between 20 to 400 nanometers. The mammoth-sized virus would be about the... Read More

Human Neurology

Human Neurology deals essentially with the nervous system of humans. It also features the various theories put forward by... Read More