Cells in different stages of meiosis
The genetic information found in DNA is essential in creating all the characteristics of an organism. This remains the case when passing genetic information to offspring, which can occur via a process called meiosis where four haploid cells are created from their diploid parent cell.
For a species to survive, and for genetic information to be preserved and passed on, reproduction must occur. This can be done by passing on the information found in the chromosomes via the gametes that are created in meiosis.
Humans are diploid creatures, meaning that each of the chromosomes in our body is paired up with another.
Haploid cells possess only one set of a chromosome. For example, a diploid human cell has 46 chromosomes and a gamete created by a human is haploid, meaning it possesses 23 chromosomes.
Reproduction occurs in humans with the fusion of two haploid cells (gametes) that create a zygote. The nuclei of both these cells fuse, bringing together half the genetic information from the parents into one new cell, that is now genetically different from both of its parents.
This increases genetic diversity as half of the genetic content from each of the parents brings about unique offspring, which possesses a unique genome presenting unique characteristics. Meiosis is a process that can increase genetic variation in many ways, explained soon.
The process of meiosis essentially involves two cycles of division, involving a gamete mother cell (diploid cell) dividing and then dividing again to form 4 haploid cells. These can be subdivided into four distinct phases which are a continuous process
Overall, this process of meiosis creates gametes to pass genetic information from parents to offspring, continuing the family tree and the species as a whole. Each of these gametes possesses unique genetic information due to situations in meiosis where genetic diversity is increased.
Watch this vid and explore the meiosis stages with vocabulary including chromosomes, centromeres, centrioles, spindle fibers, and crossing over. Video Credit: Amoeba Sisters.
The next tutorial describes the independent assortment of chromosomes and crossing over as important events in meiosis. Read it to know how they promote genetic diversity in sexually-reproducing organisms.
|MEIOSIS STAGES – DRAW THE CHROMOSOMES
An artistic way to learn about meiosis! Print this worksheet to draw the homologous chromosomes in the different stages of meiosis — from prophase I to telophase II. This will help the students master the highlights of each meiotic stage.
Subjects: Genetics & Evolution
Reviewed by: Mary Anne Clark, Ph.D.
©BiologyOnline.com. Content provided and moderated by Biology Online Editors.
The gastrointestinal system breaks down particles of ingested food into molecular forms by enzymes through digestion and..
Learn how the way genes control and determine every aspect of the body. This lesson uses lac operon as an example. ..
The sea was teeming with life. Eventually, through reproduction and continued variation, fish came about. There are over..
Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell capable of producing a specific immune response to unique antigens. In thi..
Learn about community patterns and the ecological factors influencing these patterns. Revisit some of the ecosystems you..
Bryophytes (nonvascular plants) are a plant group characterized by lacking vascular tissues. They include the mosses, th..