Biology Tutorials > Genetics and Evolution > Meiosis – The Genetics of Reproduction

Meiosis – The Genetics of Reproduction

Cells in different stages of meiosis

Cells in different stages of meiosis

Reviewed by: Mary Anne Clark, Ph.D.

The genetic information found in DNA is essential in creating all the characteristics of an organism. This remains the case when passing genetic information to offspring, that can occur via a process called meiosis where four haploid cells are created from their diploid parent cell.

For a species to survive, and genetic information to be preserved and passed on, reproduction must occur. This can be done by passing on the information found in the chromosomes via the gametes that are created in meiosis.

Chromosome Complement

Humans are diploid creatures, meaning that each of the chromosomes in our body are paired up with another.

Haploid cells possess only one set of a chromosome. For example, a diploid human cell possesses 46 chromosomes and a gamete created by a human is haploid possesses 23 chromosomes.


Reproduction occurs in humans with the fusion of two haploid cells (gametes) that create a zygote. The nuclei of both these cells fuse, bringing together half the genetic information from the parents into one new cell, that is now genetically different from both its parents.

This increases genetic diversity as half of the genetic content from each of the parents brings about unique offspring, which possesses a unique genome presenting unique characteristics. Meiosis is a process can increase genetic variation in many ways, explained soon.

The Process of Meiosis

The process of meiosis essentially involves two cycles of division, involving a gamete mother cell (diploid cell) dividing and then dividing again to form 4 haploid cells. These can be subdivided into four distinct phases which are a continuous process

First division

  • Prophase – Homologous chromosomes in the nucleus begin to pair up with one another. Crossing over may then occur between chromatids (one half of a chromosome). Crossing over is essential in increasing genetic variation.
  • Metaphase – Chromosomes line up at the equator of the cell, where the sequence of the chromosomes lined up is at random, through chance, increasing genetic variation via independent assortment.
  • Anaphase – The homologous chromosomes move to opposite poles from the equator
  • Telophase – Two new nuclei form at each pole. Cytokinesis occurs. At this stage, two haploid cells have been created from the original diploid cell of the parent.

Second division

  • Prophase II – The nuclear membrane disappears and the second meiotic division is initiated.
  • Metaphase II – Pairs of chromatids line up at the equator
  • Anaphase II – Each of these chromatid pairs moves away from the equator to the poles via spindle fibers
  • Telophase II – Four new haploid gametes are created that will fuse with the gametes of the opposite sex to create a zygote.

Overall, this process of meiosis creates gametes to pass genetic information from parents to offspring, continuing the family tree and the species as a whole. Each of these gametes possesses unique genetic information due to situations in meiosis where genetic diversity is increased.


Explore the meiosis stages with vocabulary including chromosomes, centromeres, centrioles, spindle fibers, and crossing over.
Credit: Amoeba Sisters


The next tutorial describes the independent assortment of chromosomes and crossing over as important events in meiosis. Read it to know how they promote genetic diversity in sexually-reproducing organisms.




An artistic way to learn about meiosis! Print this worksheet to draw the homologous chromosomes in the different stages of meiosis — from prophase I to telophase II. This will help the students master the highlights of each meiotic stage.

Subjects: Genetics & Evolution
Lesson: Chromosomal Basis of Heredity
Grades: 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th
Type: Worksheet


Identify the event being described. Select the best answer from the drop-down menu.

1. Four new haploid cells are created.
2. Homologous chromosomes pair up and crossing over begins.
3. Pairs of homologous chromosomes line up at the equatorial region of the cell.
4. The chromatids move away from each other towards the opposite poles via the spindle fibers.
5. Homologous chromosomes move to opposite poles away from the center of the cell.

Send Your Results (Optional)

Your Name
To Email

Test your knowledge: Meiosis Quiz & Meiosis Review Questions

Biology Tutorials > Genetics and Evolution > Meiosis – The Genetics of Reproduction

You will also like...

Takahē (Porphyrio hochstetteri)

Meet the colorful takahē, an extremely rare flightless bird. Find out more about its unique features and why they matte..

Schematic diagram of DNA replication
DNA Structure & DNA Replication

DNA is a double helix structure comprised of nucleotides. A nucleotide, in turn, is made up of phosphate molecule, deoxy..

Freshwater lake ecosystem
Freshwater Producers and Consumers

Freshwater ecosystem is comprised of four major constituents, namely elements and compounds, plants, consumers, and deco..

Photosynthesis and respiration
Plant Metabolism

Plants are responsible for incredible feats of molecular transformation. Plant processes, such as photosynthesis, photop..

Neural Control Mechanisms
Neural Control Mechanisms

Neurons generate electric signals that they pass along to the other neurons or target tissues. In this tutorial, you wil..

Thermographic image of face and neck
Regulation of Organic Metabolism, Growth and Energy Balance

The human body is capable of regulating growth and energy balance through various feedback mechanisms. Get to know the e..