Dictionary > Aneuploidy

Aneuploidy

Definition
noun
(genetics) The chromosomal variation due to a loss or a gain of one or more chromosomes resulting in the deviation from the normal or the usual number of chromosomes for that species
Supplement
Improper cell divisions may lead to chromosomal variations. One possible outcome is aneuploidy. Another common chromosomal variation is euploidy. Euploidy is a chromosomal variation involving the entire set of chromosomes in a cell or an organism. In aneuploidy, not all of the chromosomes are involved. It may be due to one or more chromosomes but not the entire set. The chromosomal variation may be caused by a lack of or a gain of a copy from the usual chromosomal number. The different conditions of aneuploidy are nullisomy (2N-2), monosomy (2N-1), trisomy (2N+1), and tetrasomy (2N+2). The suffix –somy is used rather than –ploidy. This is essential so that confusion may be avoided between the different types of aneuploidy and the types of euploidy (e.g. monoploidy, diploidy, triploidy, tetraploidy, etc). Furthermore, karyotyping of an aneuploidy (i.e. a cell or an organism displaying aneuploidy) would not be a multiple of the haploid or basic chromosomal number as seen in euploidy.
As an example, the human somatic cell usually has a chromosomal number of 46. In aneuploidy, the chromosomal number may become 45 or 47. One possible cause of the gain or loss of chromosome is when a chromosome does not separate properly (nondisjunction) between the two cells during cell division.
See also:

Related form(s):

  • aneuploidy (adjective, of, relating to, or characterized by, aneuploidy)


  • You will also like...

    Plant biology
    Plant Biology

    Plantlife can be studied at a variety of levels, from the molecular, genetic and biochemical level through organelles, c..

    Plant Auxins
    Plant Auxins – Phototropism & Geotropism

    Plants produce hormones to regulate their growth. Auxins, for instance, influence plant growth. Know the role of auxin i..

    New Zealand Fauna
    New Zealand’s Unique Fauna

    Meet some of New Zealand's unique fauna, including endemic insects, frogs, reptiles, birds, and mammals, and investigate..

    Sugar Homeostasis
    Sugar Homeostasis

    The blood sugar level is regulated by two hormones. The mechanism behind this type of negative feedback control is descr..

    Nephrolepis exaltata
    Vascular Plants: Ferns and Relatives

    Ferns and their relatives are vascular plants, meaning they have xylem and phloem tissues. Because of the presence of va..

    Crossing Over and Genetic Diversity
    Inheritance and Probability

    Gregor Mendel, an Austrian monk, is most famous in this field for his study of the phenotype of pea plants, including ..

    Related Articles...

    No related articles found

    See all Related Topics