Dictionary > Chromosome

Chromosome

Definition
noun, plural: chromosomes
A structure within the cell that bears the genetic material as a threadlike linear strand of DNA bonded to various proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, or as a circular strand of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes and in the mitochondrion and chloroplast of certain eukaryotes
Supplement
In eukaryotes, the chromosomes appear as threadlike strands that condense into thicker structures and aligns on the metaphase plate during mitosis. Humans normally have 23 pairs of chromosomes, each with a characteristic length and banding pattern. Chromosomes occur in pairs (in most somatic cells) since one member of each pair comes from the mother and the other from the father. In most prokaryotes, the chromosome is usually a circular strand of DNA; hence, the entire genome is carried on only one chromosome. In viruses, the chromosome may appear as short linear or circular structure containing the DNA or RNA molecule often lacking any structural proteins.
Word origin: Greek chroma (“color”) + soma (“body”)
See also:

  • DNA
  • chromatin
  • chromatid
  • mitosis
  • meiosis

Related term(s):

Related form(s):

  • chromosomal (adjective, of or pertaining to the chromosome).

 

Explore DNA structure/function, chromosomes, genes, and traits on this vid and find out how this relates to heredity. Credit: Amoeba Sisters

 

CELL – LABEL THE PARTS (pdf)

CELL – LABEL THE PARTS

This worksheet is useful in helping the students assess their familiarity with the different parts of the cell, both the eukaryotic and the prokaryotic types. This is useful in genetics as it helps gauge the student’s knowledge of the difference between the two cell types, especially in terms of the location of the genetic material.

Subjects: Genetics & Evolution, Cell Biology
Lesson: Introduction to Genetics
Grades: 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th
Type: Worksheet


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