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Plant Cell Defense

Plants protect themselves by releasing hydrogen peroxide to fight against fungal invasion. Another way is by secreting c..

Pollution in Freshwater Ecosystems
Pollution in Freshwater Ecosystems

There are many environmental factors that arise due to the usage of water in one way or another and for every action tha..

"Cronopio dentiacutus", a prehistoric mammal (an illustration)
Mammalian Ancestors

Mammals are a diverse group of organisms, where most of them develop their offspring within the uterus of the mother. Ov..

Salmon jumping upstream in the river
Lotic Communities & Animals

A running water environment offers numerous microhabitats for many types of animals. Similar to plants, animals in lotic..

A sperm cell fertilizing an ovum
Human Reproduction and Fertilization

For human species to obviate extinction, reproductive mature adults should be producing viable offspring in order to con..

Community Patterns

Learn about community patterns and the ecological factors influencing these patterns. Revisit some of the ecosystems you..