Dictionary > Insertion (genetics)

Insertion (genetics)

In genetics, insertion refers to the type of mutation characterized by the insertion of one or few nucleotide base pairs to a DNA sequence or a chromosome. It may be small-scale or large-scale type. A small-scale type of insertion mutation involves the insertion of one or a few nucleotides into the DNA sequence. A large-scale type of insertion is one that involves a region of a chromosome. In this case, a nonreciprocal translocation occurs. A segment is removed from one chromosome and then inserted into a broken region of a non-homologous chromosome.
When one or more nucleotides are inserted into the genetic sequence, the reading frame is disrupted during transcription, and eventually, translation. This may result in an altered sequence of amino acids, extra amino acid in a chain, or premature termination. Hence, the newly synthesized protein could be abnormally short, abnormally long, and/or contain the wrong amino acids. It will most likely not be functional.
Insertion of a larger sequence of nucleotide base pairs into a chromosome may occur when there is an unequal crossover during meiosis.

See also

References

  1. Genetics Home Reference. (2019). What is a gene mutation and how do mutations occur? Retrieved from Genetics Home Reference website: https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/mutationsanddisorders/genemutation
  2. DNA and Mutations. (2019). Retrieved from Berkeley.edu website: https://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/mutations-01
  3. What is a Mutation? (2019). Retrieved from Utep.edu website: http://utminers.utep.edu/rwebb/html/what_is_a_mutation_.html
  4. Mutation. (2019). Retrieved from Mit.edu website:http://web.mit.edu/saraht/Public/8.592FinalProject/Population_genetics/Mutation.html

© Biology Online. Content provided and moderated by Biology Online Editors



You will also like...

Chromosome Mutations
Chromosome Mutations

Mutations can also influence the phenotype of an organism. This tutorial looks at the effects of chromosomal mutations, ..

Golgi apparatus (3-D illustration)
Role of Golgi Apparatus & Endoplasmic Reticulum in Protein Synthesis

The endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus are the organelles involved in the translation step of protein synthesis a..

bryophyte - sporophyte and gametophyte
Meiosis and Alternation of Generations

Plants are characterized by having alternation of generations in their life cycles. This tutorial is a review of plant m..

river
Running Water Freshwater Communities

This tutorial introduces flowing water communities, which bring new and dithering factors into the equation for possible..

Freshwater Ecology
Freshwater Ecology

Freshwater ecology focuses on the relations of aquatic organisms to their freshwater habitats. There are two forms of co..

Human Reproduction
Human Reproduction

Humans are capable of only one mode of reproduction, i.e. sexual reproduction. Haploid sex cells (gametes) are produced ..